What Happened to the Parades? The Masonic and Templar Presence in the West, 1880-1960
By Crystal Huntley
A four-year-old boy named Walter Cary Wilcox was already without a father. He sat next to his mother as she lay dying from yellow fever. An epidemic that had taken over New Orleans in 1878 had killed approximately 500 people in twenty days. After she died, a gold watch with a Masonic symbol was found among her possessions and was given to the boy as a keepsake. Little did he know then that the same gold watch was his golden ticket. It helped move him across the country to California and even saved his life. The Masons, a well-known male fraternity that predates the American Revolution, had a network of lodges established across the United States that aided the boy on his journey. The Grand Masonic Lodge of New Orleans was notified of Walter and his watch. It then alerted various lodges west of the Mississippi River. The Masons helped the child travel by train with a tag around his neck. The tag contained all the needed information and all expenses paid for his journey. He arrived at his grandmother’s in Oakland by late October.
Walter became known as “The Mason’s Boy” after he arrived in California. The Grand Masonic Lodge of F. & A. M. (Free and Accepted Masons) helped care for him with stipends and looked after him when he was ill. Nathan Spaulding, the General Treasurer of the Lodge, adopted Walter after the boy’s grandmother died in 1888. The attention he received ensured that he grew up educated, had a steady career, and rise in the community. Wilcox himself became a Masonic member of the Oakland Lodge No. 188.
He acknowledged the Masonic influence in his life when he said, “My only hope of reciprocating this matchless kindness is by living up to the standard of the teachings of the Order, and by doing unto others as you have done unto me.”
Masonic Expansion and Social Capital
The watch helped unlock a world of privilege and influence provided by fraternities such as the Freemasons and Knights Templar. Masons and Templars are similar in structure. They focus on civic and moral duties but vary on their religious practices depending on if they follow Catholic or Protestant doctrines, or simply believe in a higher power. Presently, they are generally considered kindred. Often members of one are members of the other depending on the organizations within each state.
Revolutionaries such as George Washington (Fredericksburg Masonic Lodge #4), Benjamin Franklin (Grand Lodge of Maryland), and Paul Revere (Grand Lodge of Massachusetts) are only a few of the Freemasons of the early United States. What is less well known is the strong presence of Freemasons in the western part of the country. As pioneers shifted west in their quest for gold and silver, Masonic and Templar lodges created a network along the way to help guide, protect, and provide for other Masons on their journey. The westward expansion by Masons and Templars boosted membership, which in turn also increased their presence and prestige.
These fraternities displayed their spirit in huge gatherings referred to as conclaves, which included extravagant parades down largely decorated city streets annually or triennially. These elaborate celebrations featured prominent members in their finest attire, swords, and all, marching with precision, displaying their pride and success. Alas, these resplendent displays simply became memories of the good old days. Membership numbers for Masons and Templars have been declining rapidly from the 1960s, which calls on scholarship to determine why. The focus of this paper is centered on the grandeur of the conclaves that took place in major western cities near the end of the nineteenth century and into the twentieth century. It also considers some of the possibilities for the decline in Masonic and Templar membership and influence in more recent times.
Masonic and Templar fraternities produce social capital. Robert Putnam elaborates on the concept, defining it as “trust, norms, and networks that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated action.” Masons and Templars created networks that people could rely on for help. A notable example of this is when an earthquake shook San Francisco in 1906, the Masonic and Templar commanderies across the nation created a relief network that donated funds for the city’s recovery. A commandery from Pennsylvania alone donated $5,585.75; as a network they donated $48,331.38 in all. The more social capital the Masons and Templars created, the larger their influence flourished. Roger Burt explains that the influence of the Freemasons and Templars “have been regarded as providing some of the most powerful and influential networking systems … they have been shown to be capable of bridging the filial, religious, political, and social structures on which other networks were commonly based, and to have been highly influential in the promotion of civic engagement and the formation of social capital.”
As the network of trusted individuals arrived in California, they began to set up headquarters known as lodges. Masonic lodges were established in mining towns as early as 1850, including a grand lodge that was ensconced in Sacramento that same year. Masonic pioneers who crossed the mountainous terrain of Montana also formed lodges in mining camps. The first group of people to set up assistance networks in Virginia City was the Masons, who established a lodge there in 1866. By 1900, fifteen lodges had spread across the state and thrived in cities such as Butte.
Conclaves in the West
At the turn of the twentieth century, prominent Western cities bid against one another to host fraternal celebrations called conclaves in hopes of outdoing each other. Many accounts highlight the excitement expressed by those who witnessed these events in cities like San Francisco, Denver, and Seattle. The governing grand lodges and local commanderies from all over the nation made a pilgrimage to celebrate their brethren in ceremonial arms and to acknowledge their success. The Los Angeles Herald proclaimed that the “pageant of Knights Templars at San Francisco will be the most brilliant thing of the kind ever chronicled on the Pacific Coast.” The article continues that Templars from the East as well as from Oregon will be in attendance and that it will be “the largest, most intelligent, most impressive and most influential body of men ever welcomed at one time within the confines of the State.” San Francisco hosted a six-day conclave in August of 1883. It was the first city west of Chicago to hold the event. The city had predicted that “almost half the population of the Coast will pour into the Golden Gate” area over the course of the celebration. This was also the first conclave where the Grand Commandery of North Carolina was in attendance. This demonstrated the continued growth and the establishment of Masonic fraternities across the nation as well as just how far some Masons were willing to travel. The hosting cities of these conclaves looked forward to the revenue that they provided considering the number of visitors who needed food and lodging.
With the presence of numerous members and spectators, many wanted to know the nature of the event. The parade and its decorations were considered to be the highlight of the conclave. Members were dressed in honor attire displaying colors and well-earned medals. Some men walked the parade route, and some rode on horseback. A Masonic newspaper in Portland, Maine claimed that 5000 Templars joined in the parade, and the drill competition “showed nothing but good feeling.” Trophies that were elaborately decorated with precious metals, stones, and figurines were awarded for best drill performance. First place for the San Francisco 1883 Conclave went to a family from Louisville.
Outside of the parade several speeches were given to recognize the accomplishments of the different appointed governing lodges in each state, also known as Grand Lodges or Grand Commanderies. There were also a number of private balls and banquets over the course of the multi-day event. Internal business matters, such as elections and the review or changes to policies and procedures also took place during these conclaves. During the 1883 San Francisco conclave, Grand Master Benjamin Dean accredited the full “Ritual of Malta,” which refers to a solemn rite practiced by the Order of Malta, a much older Knights Templar order. This ritual had been debated in previous years at other conclaves because of its ambiguous origins and its possible derivation from a different ancient order. San Francisco won the bid to host the Triennial conclaves three more times, the last one being in 1949. This kept the event routinely in the West over the next several decades.
Denver hosted the next Western triennial conclave in 1892. The Herald Democrat claimed that 100,000 people were expected to turn out for the event. A Knights Templar commandery from Pennsylvania (No. 36) made the pilgrimage to Denver and also published a book about its members’ journey. Clifford Allen recorded the journey beginning with the day the train left for Denver on July 15, 1892. He mentioned that the trip would be longer since they were going to arrive on the Pacific coast first to sightsee and later arrive in Denver. He also described the hustle and bustle of the anxious Knights and their wives as they converged at Broad Street Station in Pennsylvania to await their departure.
Allen’s book provides a unique perspective on the reception of the Masonic wives during conclaves. The conclaves primarily focused on the fraternal Masonic members and their representation of themselves and their lodge, but it appears the wives were also treated respectfully even though women could not join at this time. Allen noted shortly after boarding the train that a bouquet of corsages had been brought on board and one was to be given to each woman making the journey. Allen stated that this “lent a brighter complexion to the ladies’ car.” He observed the stops that occurred each day and mentioned the Knights who boarded the train. Allen also documented the need to change the clocks back as they progressed west.
When Allen arrived in Denver, he noticed that the city was crowded. The train he was on stopped fifteen miles short because all of the tracks were packed. Allen’s commandery stayed in a residence across from the “pointed end of the Brown Palace.” The parade took place on August 9, 1892. Allen described how proud he was to see the banners of his commandery and how they displayed “liberal expressions of admiration.” He stated that the parade took about two hours, but later in the evening the Knights and their wives danced in the streets to the music played by the same bands that had performed in the parade that morning. Denver had put on quite the display for its guests. Allen described the “grand” arches hanging over the streets as well as the “illumination of the city, by means of colored incandescent globes and the electric light was one of the greatest sites that has been witnessed on this continent.” This was a remarkable comparison and high compliment to Denver since it was still such a young city in 1892. Moreover, it was compared favorably to other elaborate conclaves of the East Coast.
Though the conclave in Denver only lasted for three days, the Templars still conducted regular business. One order of business was that the “holding of commandery meetings” should not occur on Sunday since it went against their own “civil laws.” Given that the Templars are primarily a religious fraternal order, and that some Masonic orders have spiritual ties, it was surprising that this decision had not been made earlier. Allen mentioned how impressed the Templars were with the “Mile High City” given that it only had a population of 150,000; yet Denver managed to accommodate an extra 100,000. He stated that, “The feeding, lodging, and entertainment of the multitude were apparently perfect.”Allen’s detailed account of his journey and the conclave provides scholars and readers with insights into what happened and explains why the event mattered.
Railroad companies were keen to take advantage of the successful Denver conclave by providing souvenir booklets to the visiting Templars. The books contained popular scenic destinations in Colorado that the Templars should not miss on their journey or when they decided to return. Sites like the Holy Cross and Garden of the Gods are mentioned in detail with pictures. Allen made note of seeing the Garden of the Gods on his way to Denver.
Denver again hosted the Triennial Conclave in 1913 which was larger than the one before. According to The Telluride Journal, there were at least 25,000 to 30,000 Templars in the city which drew a crowd of at least 175,000 people. All of the city’s hotels had been booked, leaving thousands of people to stay on train cars. The City and County of Denver had built a grandstand that seated 30,000 for people to view the parade. The stand filled completely. Denver also had spent $50,000 on decorations and lights that included lighting for a grand Templar statue on horseback. Fifty-four bands accompanied the Knights in the parade. The Telluride Journal claimed there were over 275,000 Knights Templars across the country at the time of the conclave and that membership was increasing. However, only so many from each lodge or commandery could attend. By 1923, just two years prior to the Triennial conclave in Seattle, the Iowa Grand Commandery claimed there were 2.7 million Masonic members.
Seattle hosted the next triennial conclave of the West in 1925. Masonic News indicated that the Knights Templars planned on spending $200,000 for the event. The Seattle Times reviewed the events of the conclave, stating that the city had hosted 30,000 marching Knights Templars that summer and delivered another spectacular parade. Along the parade route were banners, wreaths, and 700 torch globes. Seattle similarly welcomed the Templars with a magnificent arch ninety-five feet tall with a large illuminated cross on top. The architects, Henry H. Hodgson and Herbert Blogg, also constructed a faux castle that was used as the Masonic headquarters during the conclave.
According to the Seattle Land Preservation Board, the temporary structure was made to look incomplete yet contained ramps and drawbridges, giving it a medieval appearance that connected the Templars to their origins. Much like the previous conclaves, unique items and souvenirs were available during this event. A spoon made of silver and enamel had a unique design that combined the Templars’ imagery with iconic symbols of Seattle such as Chief Seattle and a nod to the timber industry there at the time.
Decline from Grace
Following the Seattle conclave, many of the hosting cities were located on the East Coast or in the Midwest, with exception of San Francisco and Denver. The popularity of the conclaves was reflected in the increasing membership numbers of the Masons across the country in the 1930s through the early 1950s. Men continued to be allured by the secrets and formalities of Masonic Orders. Apart from enjoying the social camaraderie of the lodges, they obtained insurance benefits that were not yet provided by the government. By the 1950s there were just over 4,000,000 Freemasons. Unfortunately, over the course of approximately fifty years their numbers fell to only a million. Some 50,000 Freemason memberships are lost every year. At that rate they will soon be at their lowest numbers since the Civil War. One would think that with the increasing American population after World War II that membership would be on the rise; however, forty years after the Seattle conclave, numbers had already begun to drop below the four million mark. After WWII, some men returning home from the war joined fraternal societies to make connections for work and also bond with other veterans to retain feelings of brotherhood. This brotherhood provided many with a sense of purpose in their communities. But change was coming. By the 1950s these veterans found good jobs. They switched their focus to family life, homes, large yards, domestic chores, and leisure time on the crabgrass frontier. Perhaps too as membership that was predominately White plateaued prior to the onset of the Civil Rights movement, minorities likely felt excluded. Present-day, Masonic and Templar fraternities continue to be saddled with a deleterious reputation of being less accepting, thereby making exclusion itself an initial possibility for fraternal order decline.
The secretive past of Masonic fraternities has invited much speculation. Presumably such attention would attract interest, yet memberships continue to decline. Conspiracy theories have not attracted potential new Freemasons. Perhaps because rituals and practices that were once safeguarded have entered the spotlight this has caused some of the allure to be lost. The result of which is fewer wanting to join.
An additional possibility for their decline could be age and the lack of time or interest among younger generations. Freemason numbers are declining because the average age of members is older, and when older Masons are gone, there are not many recruits to replace them. The lack of recruits can be explained by the technological advancement of television and other media, where people tend to focus their time rather than joining fraternal organizations. As time passes, younger generations spend more time, often in solitude, staring at screens and communicating virtually rather than interacting in person. The Masons rely on personal interaction to recruit and retain members. They also rely on membership dues to pay for their activities and to promote their organization. A downturn in members means less funds and a diminution of activities and presence. Fundamentally, the waning of fraternal organizations is related to the overall decline of other forms of associational life, including religious congregations, sports clubs, and volunteer societies.
Some scholars believe that fraternal organizations such as the Masons and Templars are démodé and simply have not adapted to a changing world. Their networks and their volunteer actions have not evolved to the modern trends. J. C. Herbert Emery contends that “decline was a product of the inability of fraternal orders to compete with the development of alternative venues and opportunities for socializing and recreation in American society.” Simply put, the world passed by these Masonic fraternities once needs and interests began to be met by other types of organizations, activities, interests, attitudes, lifestyles, and socializing.
That Masonic fraternities have not adapted to changing social trends contributes to the inability to raise funds for conclaves or parades. The fraternities may be less funded, yet some prominent people of contemporary times are members, such as John Hershey, Buzz Aldrin, and John Elway. Lack of gender inclusivity could play a role in membership decline. Women were the heart of volunteerism decades ago, but as women entered the work force, they had less time for volunteer groups. This affected male only fraternities since the wives created their own sororities to run jointly with the Masonic ones. Moreover, in the 1950s the number of married women entering the labor force increased. A recently suggested reason for Masonic membership decline is that the decrease in numbers itself is not being addressed as a concern by Masonic or Templar fraternities. By not doing enough to change course they seem to be accepting a diminished stature.
Fraternal orders once had the numbers to stage sizeable conclaves with gatherings that awed cities. They planned elaborate parades and expressed great pride in their lodges, orders, and fraternities. Individuals like Walter Wilcox, who experienced their assistance and influence firsthand, went on to join a Masonic fraternity to not only express his gratitude, but to do his part for the community and the future of fraternities. Triennial conclaves from long ago made the Masons and Templars look like royalty, and they were treated as such in the early conclaves of the West. In more recent years, conclaves take place in small hotel banquet rooms where fewer members participate in them. Newspapers, regardless of whether they are in the East or West, hardly mention the conclaves. Cities no longer welcome Masons and Templars with hoopla and elaborately decorated arches or illuminated statues acting as welcoming guardians to greet them. Banners and symbolic ornaments do not hang on light posts anymore. The parades with distinctive visual images and rousing sounds of thousands of men marching in unison with clanking swords, displaying colors and medals of gallantry and honor are no more than echoes of the past.
1 “Historic American Newspapers,” The New Orleans Daily Democrat, August 23, 1878, <https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83026413/1878-08-23/ed-1/seq-6/> ; Henry W. Coil – Library & Museum of Freemasonry, Walter Cary Wilcox, “The Mason’s Boy,” accessed October 6, 2020, http://www.masonicheritage.org/exhibits/wilcox_gallery.htm.
2 The Freemasons is a male fraternal organization that at least dates back to 1717 England. According to the Massachusetts Freemasonry website, the organization may have been started as far back as 1390 when stonemason guilds were established. Similar Masonic symbols have been found in those records. Masonic Service Association of North America, “History of Freemasonry,” Massachusetts Freemasonry, accessed October 25, 2020, https://massfreemasonry.org/what-is-freemasonry/history-of-freemasonry/
3 Masonic abbreviations vary by location, by-laws, and beliefs of each individual lodge. “Masonic Abbreviations,” Freemason Information, February 27, 2009, accessed October 26, 2020, https://freemasoninformation.com/masonic-education/freemasonry-in-general/masonic-abbreviations/, Henry W. Coil – Library & Museum of Freemasonry, Walter Cary Wilcox, “The Mason’s Boy,” accessed October 6, 2020, http://www.masonicheritage.org/exhibits/wilcox_gallery.htm
4 Henry W. Coil – Library & Museum of Freemasonry, Walter Cary Wilcox, “The Mason’s Boy,” accessed October 6, 2020, http://www.masonicheritage.org/exhibits/wilcox_gallery.htm
5 Schieck, Harold. “In Whom Do You Put Your Trust?” MasonicWorld.com, 1997-2019, accessed February 21, 2021 https://www.masonicworld.com/education/files/artsep01/putyourtrust.htm; Dumenil, Lynn. Freemasonry and American Culture, 1880-1930, United States: Princeton University Press, 2014.
6 It is worth pointing out that Masons and Templars do have different histories. Masonic traditions stem from stonemasons as mentioned previously. Knights Templars were soldiers who protected people on their pilgrimage to the Holy Land during the Crusades. The Templars were disbanded by the Catholic Church in 1307. Lodges that exist today do not claim to have direct descendants of the original Templars, but many dress or practice as close as they can to the original order. Jennie Cohen, “History of the Knights Templar”, A&E Television Networks 2020, Updated on September 3, 2018. https://www.history.com/news/who-were-the-knights-templar-2.
7 Masonic Lodge No. 4. “History,” Accessed October 8, 2020, https://www.masoniclodge4.org/history-of-lodge-4;J. Travis Walker, A History of Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, A.F. & A.M., 1752 – 2002, (Sheridan Books, Fredericksburg, Virginia 2002); Silvanus J. Quinn, This History of the City of Fredericksburg, Virginia, (Hermitage Press, Fredericksburg, VA 1908); Charles H. Callahan, “Washington – The Man and the Mason,” 6th Ed., George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association (1913); R.W. Robert E. Simpson, “Virginia’s Grand Masters, 1778 – 2012,” Grand Lodge of Virginia website; “The History of the Grand Lodge of Virginia,” Grand Lodge of Virginia website; Michael Spencer, “Masonic Lodge No. 4,” Presentation to Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4 (2018);Robert A. Hodge, “The Masonic Cemetery of Fredericksburg, Virginia,” (1991); Paula S. Felder, “Early Taverns Livened Up Fredericksburg,” Free Lance Star, Dec. 4, 1999; Grand Lodge of Maryland, “Benjamin Franklin,” Excerpted from Short Talk Bulletin 1933, 2020, accessed October 6, 2020, http://mdmasons.org/about-md-masons/famous-masons/ben-franklin/#:~:text=Franklin%20lived%20to%20be%20eighty,the%20principles%20of%20the%20Order. Massachusetts Freemasons, “History of Freemasonry,” 2020, Accessed on October 9, 2020, https://massfreemasonry.org/what-is-freemasonry/history-of-freemasonry/
8 Taya Flores, “Fraternal Service Groups Battle Declining Membership,” Journal & Courier, October 11, 2014, https://www.jconline.com/story/news/2014/10/11/fraternal-service-groups-battle-declining-membership/16874977/
9 Jason Kaufmann and David Weintraub reference Robert Putnam who explains James Coleman’s concept of social capital which is why these citations are listed together. Jason Kaufmann and David Weintraub, “Social-Capital Formation and American Fraternal Association: New Empirical Evidence,” The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 35, no. 1 (2004): 1-36. Accessed October 29, 2020. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3656414; Robert D. Putnam, Robert Leonardi, and Raffaella Y. Nanetti, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy, Princeton University Press, 1994; Putnam, Robert D. “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital.” In Culture and Politics, pp. 223-234. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2000; James S. Coleman, “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital,” American Journal of Sociology 94, (1988): S95-S120.
10 Andrew J. Redmond, L.L.B., Complete History Of The Epoch Making XXXI Triennial Conclave: Of The Grand Encampment Knights Templar Of The United States, (1910), Coppell, Texas, September 23, 2020.
11 Roger Burt, “Freemasonry and Business Networking during the Victorian Period”, The Economic History Review 56, no. 4 (2003): 657-88, Accessed October 17, 2020, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3698722.
12 Masons of California, “History: Masonry in California,” 2020, Accessed on October 18, 2020, https://freemason.org/discover-masonry/history/
13 Paul Rich, and Marie Avila, “The Oddfellow of the Masonic Order,” Material Culture 36, no. 2 (2004): 56-68, Accessed October 17, 2020,http://www.jstor.org/stable/29764234.
14 “Triennial Conclave,” Los Angeles Herald, July 19, 1883, California Digital Newspaper Collection, Accessed on November 8, 2020, https://cdnc.ucr.edu/?a=d&d=LAH18830719.2.9&e=——-en–20–1–txt-txIN——–1
15 Herald, “Triennial Conclave”, July 19, 1883.
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20 Masonic Trophy, “Meetings,” 204; Sotheby’s Auction, 22nd Triennial Conclave At San Francisco, California, 1883, American Silver, California Gold, Quartz, And Bronze “Knights Templar” Trophy, George C. Shreve & Co., San Francisco, The Figures Attributed To F. Marion Wells, 1883, http://www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/2012/americana-n08823/lot.59.html
21 The Grand Lodge of Virginia, Frequently Asked Questions, 2001-2020, accessed on December 5, 2020, https://grandlodgeofvirginia.org/frequently-asked-questions/
22 The Triennial Token, “Meetings,” 204; Redmond, Triennial Conclave, 77
23 Token, “Meetings,” 204; Redmond, Triennial Conclave, 77; Albert Gallatin Mackey, “The History of Freemasonry 1898,” Chapter XLIX, Pietre Stones “Reviewof Freemasonry, 1996-2020,” Accessed on November 8, 2020, http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/mackeyhi15.html
24 Grand Encampment of Knights Templar U.S.A, “Conclaves from 1816”, accessed November 7, 2020, https://www.knightstemplar.org/pgeo/conclaves.html
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26 Clifford P. Allen, (Clifford Paynter), Pilgrimage of Mary Commandery, No. 36, K.T. of Pennsylvania to the Twenty-fifth Triennial Conclave of the Grand Encampment U.S. At Denver, Colorado, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: (Thomson Printing Company), 1892.
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37 Telluride Journal, “32nd Triennial Conclave of Knights Templar Is Formally Opened In Denver,” August 14, 1913. Accessed on November 8, 2020, https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org/?a=d&d=TTJ19130814.2.31&e=——-en-20–21–img-txIN%7ctxCO%7ctxTA-Knights+Templar+Conclave——-0–
38 Telluride, “32nd Triennial, 1913; Allen, Pilgrimage, 177.
39 Masonic News, Vol. 3, University of Michigan, United States, February1923, 30, https://www.google.com/books/edition/Masonic_News/VB_nAAAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=seattle+conclave+1925+statistics&pg=PA30&printsec=frontcover.
40 Masonic News, University of Michigan, 30.
41 Dorpat, Paul, “The Day the Knights Templar Marched through Seattle,” The Seattle Times, August 16, 2018, Accessed on December 5, 2020, https://www.seattletimes.com/pacific-nw-magazine/the-day-the-knights-templar-marched-through-seattle/
42 Dorpat, Paul, “Welcome Arch: Second Avenue was decked out for a last hurrah,” The Seattle Times, March 18, 1984, accessed on March 12, 2021, https://pauldorpat.com/2018/08/18/seattle-now-then-the-knights-templar-take-seattle-1925/
43 Landmark Preservation Board, “Landmark Nomination Application,” City of Seattle, June 27, 2019, http://www.seattle.gov/Documents/Departments/Neighborhoods/HistoricPreservation/Landmarks/Current Nominations/LPBCurrentNom_Canterbury_Court.pdf.
44 Phoenix Masonry, 1925 36th Triennial Conclave Spoon from Seattle Washington, 1999-2019, Accessed on December 5, 2020, http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/masonicmuseum/KT_1925_Seattle_Spoon.htm.
45 Fred Milliken, “Freemasonry is Dying,” Freemason Information, November 29, 2018, Accessed on November 8, 2020, https://freemasoninformation.com/2018/11/freemasonry-is-dying/
46 Milliken, “Freemasonry,” website.
47 Masonic Service Association of North America, “Masonic Membership Statistics since 1924,” Accessed on November 8, 2020, http://www.msana.com/msastats.asp.
48 Hinck, John. “Understanding the Decline in Participation in Fraternal Organizations: A Mixed Methods Approach,” University of San Diego, May 25, 2018, (174-186), https://digital.sandiego.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1110&context=dissertations.
49 Dan Brown, The Da Vinci Code: A Novel, New York: Doubleday, 2003.
50 Paul Rich, and Marie Avila, “The Oddfellow of the Masonic Order,” Material Culture 36, no. 2 (2004): 56-68, Accessed October 17, 2020, http://www.jstor.org/stable/29764234.
51 J. C. Herbert Emery, “From Defining Characteristic to Vitiation of Principle: The History of the Odd Fellows’ Stipulated Sick Benefit and Its Implications for Studying American Fraternalism,” Social Science History 30, no. 4 (2006): 479-500, Accessed October 29, 2020, doi:10.2307/40267919.
52 Knight Templar, “Famous Masons,” KT Magazine Articles, August 9, 2018. Accessed on November 8, 2020, https://www.knightstemplar.org/KnightTemplar/articles/famousmasons.htm.
53 Dora L. Costa and Matthew E. Kahn, Understanding the Decline in Social Capital, 1952-1998, NBER Working Paper Series, no. w8295 (Cambridge, Mass: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2001), https://www.nber.org/papers/w8295. It is important to note that organizations traditionally ran by women are referred to as sororities; however female members of the Freemasonry for Women organization in England are considered a fraternity. “Freemasonry for women explained,” The Honourable Fraternity of Ancient Freemasons, 2014-2021, https://hfaf.org/.
54 Milliken, Fred. “Freemasonry is Dying.” Freemason Information. November 29, 2018. Accessed on November 8, 2020, https://freemasoninformation.com/2018/11/freemasonry-is-dying/.
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